Time Trials - FAQs

At times Cycling Time Trials are shrouded in mystery and newcomers feel daunted by turning up to open or club events, with all those expensive shiny bikes, pointy helmets and intense middle aged men fretting over set up.  This page addresses some of the questions that you do not know to ask as a new rider or even as an experienced rider.

The formal resources are on the CTT page of FAQs but they are a little dry and very specific https://www.cyclingtimetrials.org.uk/articles/index/rider_faqs and the VTTA FAQ page is better https://www.vtta.org.uk/content/0-time-trialling-faqs.  However, this page is based on practical experience.

  • What is time trialling?

A cycling time trial is sometimes called the 'race of truth' because it is the simplest purest race against the clock. Each rider sets off on their own and covers the specified course in the fastest time they can, alone and unpaced. It is you against the clock. No tactics, no teamwork, no game-plan other than to finish in the shortest possible time.

Riders usually set off at minute intervals, counted down by the timekeeper. You ride at your own pace and may be overtaken by other riders, or you may overtake others. Whatever happens you must never shelter in the slipstream of another rider and you should not take pace from anyone else.

The beauty of time trialling is that anyone can do it. Fast or slow, young or old, experienced or inexperienced.

  • Why ride at time trial?

They  are an independent race where nobody can force your hand (such as chase a break or respond to an attack in a road race), it’s you and the bike in a world of what is technically a fine balancing act against the clock. You would be going flat out, on the limit to last the distance and 9 times out of 10 finish exhausted knowing that you couldn’t have done any better. Every race is different, even on the same course!  Often people don’t often look for their finishing position just their time, because they realise they are not going to be at the pointy end of the race, it’s not why most people do time trials.  Remember your first race is a Personal Best (PB) and it can get addictive chasing those PBs.

  • What kind of bike do I need? 

Literally any bike you own as long as it is in good working order and it is roadworthy. Don't be put off because you think your bike might not be fast enough. There are many different types of bike:
Time Trial bike - usually has tri bars, disc rear wheel and deep section front wheel
Road Bike - any road bike without any form of clip on extensions
Road Bike - with clip on extensions (not eligible for road bike category)
Shopping Bike - for those that like the extra training

Quite often a good standard road racer on a road race bicycle is capable of matching or beating a specialist TT bike with a rider in an aero position.

You may also ride a Trike or a Tandem bicycle in time trials if the event allows that category in the event.

  • Do I need to be a member of a cycling club?

Club events: You can usually enter a club event without being a member of any cycling club - but it is polite to ask the club officials if they are happy for you to do so and they will request a small fee to cover insurance and make you a day rider.  Events that are categorised as Come and Try It (CATI) are for people to try out time trials with no committment.  For a CATI designated event you do not need to belong to an affiliated club, but the levy fee is still payable.  After a couple of rides you would be expected to join the club.

Open events: If you are not a member of a cycling club which is affiliated to the CTT then you cannot enter an open event. Once you have joined an affiliated club you need to register with CTT for the purposes of Time Trialling, go to https://www.cyclingtimetrials.org.uk/register.  Club memberships are usually very reasonable (fees of course vary but some clubs are as little as £20 per annum, other may go as high as £50 per annum but consider membership of a Golf Club - membership at the Highworth (local) golf club is ~£800pa and then of course you pay playing fees.

  • Benefits of joining a club?

People often ask why join a club and there are lots of reasons.  However, if you want to time trial by joining a club you get access to those people who already ride time trials.  They will be only too pleased to share their knowledge with you.  If you are really lucky you might actually find someone who can help with practical advice and not blind you with science and power numbers.  In all seriousness the club will mentor you and give you advice on do's and don’ts.

  • Who can race?

It would be nice to say anyone but there are some restrictions.  Under 12's are not allowed to race on the open road and 12 - 18 year olds must have a signed parental consent form.  Otherwise anyone can race, at any age.  To make it a more level playing field some club events are handicapped, some events use Veterans age adjusted times to make sure that those over 40 years old race on a sort of adjusted virtual level playing field. For veterans this system also pits men and women against each other equally, so it is not uncommon for woment to win veterans events.  Most events are mixed events with men and women competing in the same event but usually event organiser award prizes/positions to men and women separately so there is a competition within a competition.  Some events will group riders so that for example all of the women start in the same time block so they are racing against each other more directly, others spread women throughout the field and for larger competitions such as National events there are often men / women / junior specific events.

  • How are courses chosen?

For safety reasons and for the standardisation of distances, time trialling is only done on roads which have been approved for use by the local CTT district committee. Factors which are taken into account in the risk assessment include the safety of the start and finish points, the volume of traffic, the width and surface of the road and the safety of junctions. Obviously courses need to be free of traffic lights or junctions where stopping is likely to be a necessity. They are often of a standard distance such as 10, 25 or 50 miles, but this is not always the case.

  • Why do courses have code names?

This is a throwback to the days when road racing was illegal and cyclists used to meet early in the day using codes only known to them to indicate the course and set off at one minute intervals so that they were not seen to be racing.  Of course they were racing against the clock.  The letter in the code indicates which CTT District the event is being held in, so "U" indicates West District and the number is the course.  In the West we try to group courses logically by area so U8** courses for example tend to be in the Chippenham area.  In time trialling, each approved course is represented by a course code.  Some find the course codes initially confusing but they are just a shorthand.

  • How do I enter an event?

Club events: Generally you just turn up at the published meeting point, sign on, pay your entry fee, check there are no additional hazards, pin your number on and race.  Some clubs are now using the CTT entry registration system and if they are this will be advertised.  Details of West District club events can be found at https://www.cyclingtimetrials.org.uk/district-details/20.

Open Events: You can find the events you want to enter on the CTT website at https://www.cyclingtimetrials.org.uk/find-events and navigating to the District and then following the Enter button for your choosen event.  Events usually close on the Tuesday night two weeks before the actual event.  This allows the organiser to have time to compile the start sheet and send it out.  People often ask why so long before the event but remember the event organiser is a volunteer and may be away between the closing date and the actual event.  It gives time to sort out mistakes which sometimes occur and reduces pressure on the organiser.  Even with electronic entries and lots of advertising most organisers get requests, days after an event entry has closed, to enter.  If the start sheet has been published the organiser cannot just add your name to the event as a favour.

A step by step guide to entering an open event can be found here.

  • Why do I have to pay to enter an event?

Every event organiser has to pay a levy to the CTT for each rider in their event.  This is currently £5 for an Open event or £3 for a club event.  Details on levies are on this page.

Club events.  Most club events charge a very small fee to cover the CTT levy and a little extra to cover costs, such as new signage or numbers.  This is usually paid as cash on the day although some clubs use "card" machines or invoice riders at the end of the season.

Open events: As well as the £5 levy fee the organiser will have event runnign costs - timekeepers costs, HQ hall hire, overheads such as maintaining their club's numbers and signage, incidental costs such as zip ties and mileage (did you know that even for a 10 mile time trial the organiser can drive over 100 miles in course checking, setting out and bringing back in the signage) and of course prize money.  Whilst most events do give prizes they often reflect the size of the field, the smaller the field the smaller the prize pot.  Most clubs do not run Open events to make a profit, they run them to keep the sport of time trialling alive and give us all a great day out.

  • When should I arrive at the event?

Club events: Arrive at the meeting point with plenty of time to spare before the race. Most riders allow a minimum of half an hour before the event start time. This means you can sign on, prepare your bike and yourself, pin on your number and get warmed up without rushing.

Open events: Prior to an open event you will have received a start sheet giving your start time. The only requirement is that you are ready to start, at the start line at the allotted time. You should aim to reach the HQ about an hour before your allotted start time, collect your number, sign on and get warmed up without rushing. Some HQs are several miles from the event start, so you need to leave sufficient time to get to the start from the HQ. This information will be in the start sheet.

  • Will there be any changing facilities?

Club events: Club events are informal racing events that are run very cheaply. There are therefore usually no changing facilities. Most competitors travel to the event in cycling kit or get changed in their car. 

Open events: Open events usually have a HQ at a village hall or similar. There is usually space to change and toilet facilities. Be prepared to queue and I usually have toilet paper in my car (just in case the HQ runs out).

  • What do I need to bring with me?
  • Your bike and all equipment for riding it (helmet, shoes etc).
  • A working rear and front light - this is a compulsory requirement for all all time trials. No light = no ride.
  • A hard shell helmet.  No helmet – no ride.
  • A track pump if you have one.
  • Tools, allen keys and spare inner tube.
  • A mobile phone (to call for help if you puncture and are stuck.)
  • Money to cover the entry fee for club events.
  • A drink.
  • Some food if you will need to eat a snack after racing.

Some people also bring a turbo trainer to warm up on, but you can also warm up on the road (although some events have rules about not warming up on the event course).

  • What should I wear?

The CTT has some rules about what can be worn in time trials.  These were a bit archaic, but you should be aware that you could be prevented from starting unless your clothing complies. Basically, you need to wear ordinary cycling shorts to mid-thigh, and an ordinary cycling jersey with sleeves that cover your shoulders. Sleeveless tri suits allowed but you will not be allowed to race in swimware.  

Also, you should not wear clothing showing commercial sponsorship unless your club is a sponsored club. Some organisers are stricter on this rule than others - most cycling kit has some branding on it, but you should try and choose something where the logos are fairly discreet.

  • Do I have to wear a helmet?

The rules have changed and hard shell cycling helmets are now mandatory.

  • Where does the number go?

You should pin your number on your lower back, in the middle, so it is visible to drivers, marshals and other competitors when you are tucked over your handlebars or on your aero bars (organised riders may even keep spare safety pins in their car!).  Putting the number higher on your back (between your shoulders) will mean it cannot be easily seen, so make sure you position it low enough to be visible. You may need to ask someone to help you with this. However, the key reason for the number is the timekeeper, it must be visible to them.  If they can't see it you may have sweated blood and tears, leaving it all out on the road, for no time reward.  

Some skinsuits will have tags to attach the number, but otherwise make sure all four pins are through the fabric and the number is firmly attached.

  • How do I start time trialing?

The easiest way to start time trialing is to enter your local clubs events which are held on Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday nights, normally over 10-miles. They are usually held between April August and are listed on club websites. You don’t need a racing licence but if you’re older than 12 but less than 18, you must bring a consent form signed by a parent or guardian.  Under 12's are not allowed to race on the open road.

  • What happens at the start?

Club events: When you sign on make sure you know what your start time is and exactly where is the start line. No one will remind you of this or worry about getting you to the start on time. You should make sure you are on the start line at least a minute before your start time. 

Open events: As all riders must pre-enter, the start order is published in advance and you will receive this by email a few days before the event. This tells you your exact start time. On the day you should collect your number from the HQ and present yourself at the start line at least a minute before your start time.

When it is your turn, the timekeeper will call your number and you can move up to the start line and wait for the timekeeper to count you down. 

For both club and open events, there will usually be a person pushing off - they will hold you in position while you clip your pedals in and then let you go when the count down ends.  If you haven't done this before, you may want to have a practice beforehand, as it can be a bit daunting.  If you decide you don't want to be pushed off, that's fine too - just tell the timekeeper and pusher off that you will start with one foot on the floor.  Since COVID-19 many events no longer have a pusher off.

  • How do I race?

The hard bit! Obviously you need to pace your ride so that you can do your best time.
You do need to have studied the course in advance – Google Streetview can be a great resource, and if there isn’t a map of the course on the event page it can be worth searching for “Strava” and the course code.
On the day, the organiser will (Open events) / may (club events) have placed a good number of direction arrows on the course. Occasionally they go missing or aren’t clear, so it’s worth knowing your way round.
At the finish you will usually see some form of black and white chequerboard, and someone sitting with a clipboard in a camping chair (or sometimes in their car!) As you pass the finish SHOUT your number to help the timekeeper record an accurate time for you.

  • Will there be marshals/observers to direct me?

In an open event, there should be marshals/observers on the course to make traffic aware that a cycling event is taking place. Marshals/observers are not there to direct or stop traffic (that’s illegal) or to tell you whether it’s safe to proceed (that’s for you to decide).  Also  their role is not to tell you where to go. The onus is on the rider to know the course. Make sure that you know where the course goes!  For most club events it is highly unlikely there will be marshals/observers.

  • What happens if I get a puncture during the race?

You should always carry a pump, inner tube and tyre levers to repair your puncture.

Of course, anyone can have a puncture anywhere and it may happen to you during a race. If so, it is incumbent on you to arrange a rescue or replace the inner tube or mend the puncture yourself. Try to let another competitor know that you have punctured. Organisers will try not to leave you stranded on a remote road, but you should not assume someone will rescue you. An alternative solution is to agree with a friend to mutually come to each other’s rescue should the need arise.

  • What happens if someone overtakes me?

Don’t worry if you are overtaken – this happens to everyone at some point. Let the overtaking rider get well ahead of you so that you get no drafting advantage and don’t be put off. Concentrate on riding your own race at your own pace.  You must not ‘sit on their wheel’ or take turns at the front with them. If you catch another rider, assuming that it is safe to do so, you must go straight past them.  In Open Events the field layout attempts to reduce the number of overtakes based on riders predicted times.

  • What do I do at the finish line?

When you pass the timekeeper at the finish line it is traditional to shout out your number in case your number is not easily visible to the timekeeper. Continue down the road, riding gently to warm down. 

Please do not distract the timekeeper by asking your time - they have an important job to do. 

  • What do I do with my race number?

Please do not take this home with you! You MUST return your race number to the meeting point or event HQ as soon as you finish and sign the sign out sheet to confirm you have returned to HQ safely.  

Time trial event numbers are fabric numbers which are reusable (unlike the disposable numbers used in triathlons); they belong to the organising club and are an expensive investment.

Open events often provide a free cup of tea or coffee at the HQ when you return your number.  Cake is also usually available at the HQ for a small charge.

  • How will I find out my result for the race?

Club events: After crossing the finish line, continue riding and cool down and return to the meeting point. After all riders have finished the timekeeper will come back to the meeting point and let everyone know their time.

Open events: After crossing the finish line, continue riding and cool down and return to the HQ. The results will be displayed at the HQ on a results board. A prize presentation is usually made at the HQ after the event.  You should also receive a formal results sheet by email soon after the event.  If you have won a prize and were not able to collect it at the HQ, this will usually be posted to you soon after the event. 

  • What are the CTT Districts?

The CTT Districts are all shown on the CTT map at https://www.cyclingtimetrials.org.uk/districts-map

  • What types of time trials are there?

Standard or traditional distances: these are over 10, 25, 50 and 100 miles or 12/24 hours. These are usually run on flattish and fast courses, be aware that some of these fast courses use major dual carriageways, i.e. A419, A303, etc.
Circuit TTs are run over a circuit of public roads for a number of laps. The circuits are not usually on main roads and generally include a hill. 

Hilly/hard riders TTs are run over courses that are deliberately hard and/or hilly, again they are generally run on quieter roads but mainly at the start of the season.

Hill climbs vary between the very steep and short to long less steep hills, are run from September through October. 

  • Where can I get exact details of the route.

Most courses are listed on the CTT website on the Discover Course link.  Your local club probably lists the courses it uses on their website.

  • Safety

There are three golden rules in time trialing: keep your head up and watch where you are going. You must also follow all the requirements of the highway code, giving way to other road users where necessary. You must ride the course ‘alone and unaided’. This means that you mustn’t shelter behind or alongside other riders or vehicles (even that tempting tractor!).

  • Speed Restrictions

This is a contentious subject but CTT Guidance is clear that riders must not exceed posted speed restrictions.  Riders are required to ride safely and comply with traffic regulations.  Your own safety is your personal responsibilty and you must avoid riding recklessly.

Other thoughts.


Make sure that you arrive at least 45 minutes before the start. You sign on in the car park, pay the fee and collect your race number. Ask someone to pin yours to the back of your jersey, towards the bottom, not too high up. Your number determines your start time. For example, if the event starts at 19:00 and you’re number five, you will start at 19:05.

If you’ve got time, go for a ride to warm up. Riding from home to the event can be a useful warm up, but remember that’ll mean you also have to ride home. Make sure that you get to the start with a few minutes to spare. At one minute to go, you’ll get in position. Make sure you’re in a gear that you can accelerate away in. At 30 seconds, the starter will, if you wish, hold you up. Take some deep breaths, clip into your pedals, and set them in your starting position. The timekeeper will count down to the start finishing with 5-4-3-2-1-GO.

Don’t make the mistake of starting too fast. You need to get into the ride, so find a rhythm for your breathing and pedaling that’s hard but sustainable. Try not to let your mind wander. This will probably feel like the hardest thing you have done on a bike – if it doesn’t, then you’re not trying hard enough. You’ll most likely be caught by other riders, including one or two dressed like extras from a Star Wars movie with disc wheels that make a whooshing sound you can hear from some distance.

The aim is to reach the finish line feeling like you couldn’t pedal another foot, although in truth you’ve probably felt like that for the last few miles. Don’t hang around the timekeeper or try to talk to them. Pedal back to the car park, get your time there and start planning how you’re going to beat it next time.

There are a few rules/guidance’s of time trialling events that may have already been covered but are useful to remember:

  • No riding past the start line onto the course after the first rider has started. Your number will be noted down and the organiser may have a word or disqualify you.
  • No turning round in sight of the timekeeper.
  • Always stick to the ‘Cycling Lane’ – ride on the left. Common sense when you think of safety but you must not stray past the middle of the lane unless there is no alternative option (such as a hazard).
  • Study the course before. Some events don’t have markers or even marshals at a junction, so it’s best to know where you are going and not rely on others.
  • Get to the start line at least a minute before your off time – you will be told at registration (or via organisers email/programme in Open events) what time you start but essentially the start time of the event with your race number added to it is usually a good indicator – 7.30 start, number 15 = You start at 7.45. If you are late, don’t panic, pull up and speak to the timekeeper and see if there is anything they are willing to do to allow you to ride.
  • No littering on the course – You don’t do this anyway…
  • People tend to shout out their number as they cross the finish line – it’s just a thing, I guess it helps the timekeeper in case they miss your number.
  • Don’t be afraid to ask a question.
  • Enjoy it and thank the people who give up their time to allow you to ‘race’. People give up their feet up or riding time to allow you to dribble and snot all over the carriageway, the least you can do is show some gratification. It goes a long way.
  • Consider offering to help your local club when they are running events.  Officials are always in short supply and this could be your sport!

You’ll find information on open events and lots of tips and advice about time trialing on the Cycling Time Trials website. Be careful, time trialing can be addictive!!!!


Also there is stacks of material out there and some is very engaging such as this You Tube Video introduction: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F7y6Akv7MIw
(note video is out of date, Lights and Helmets are mandatory and the URL is wrong.) or this one https://youtu.be/Am5j5xj6v0I (note video is out of date on front light and helmet).  But like much or the material on the Internet it may be out of date or just wrong!


For completeness the following text is an extract from the 2023 CTT Handbook on p.233/234.

Over the years the Regulations governing time trials have grown and become more complicated. This makes it difficult for the newcomer to the sport to find the important things they need to know about time trialling before riding in an event. These notes contain the main features from the Regulations relating to racing and competitor’s behaviour but in no way do they detract from or alter those regulations.

1. Minimum Age

The minimum age for competitors is 12 years. This is in the interest of safety as most time trials are conducted on open public highways and it is not practicable to try and supervise all minors throughout the event. It is therefore essential that young competitors know the Highway Code and are competent toride on the roads alone, and have the authorisation of their parents to compete (if under 18 years of age).

2. Time Trial Races

The minimum distance for a time trial is generally 10 miles but shorter races are permitted. Most races are at either fixed distances (10, 25, 50 and 100 miles) or fixed time (12 and 24 hours). Riders start at one minute intervals, or sometimes more, and cover the course as fast as they are able alone and without taking pace from other competitors or vehicles. When a competitor gets caught by another one the Regulations require the overtaken rider to fall back to a distance behind the other one where he/she  is getting no shelter or help from the faster rider. At least 50 yards/metres is required.

3. Safety

When time trial courses are designed safety is a major consideration. However, ultimately it is the competitor’s conduct which determines how safe a course is. The races are held on open roads and competitors must obey the law of the land relating to road travel before, during and after a race, Competitors must be responsible for their own safety and also avoid creating situations which are unsafe for other road users.

There are a number of points which will help the beginner, and others to enjoy safer racing:

(i) A cyclist is less likely to be seen than a car or lorry by drivers of vehicles. You need to remember this when approaching any road junction. To improve visibility from the rear (as well as identifying the rider) all riders are required to wear a bright fluorescent number. This needs to be positioned on the rider’s shorts from the waistband downwards, or as near to that position as possible since an overhanging jersey would cover it in that position. The number should not be positioned high on the back like a runner’s numbers are.

(ii) U-turns in the road are another hazard as drivers of vehicles are not normally expecting another road user to make this manoeuvre. It is Company policy to eliminate U-turns from courses and to reduce their use where they cannot be avoided. They are also a hazardous manoeuvre both before the race whilst riders are warming up or circling in the road prior to starting and after the race when riders return to the result board or to their cars. 

(iii) Head down riding is another major hazard as the rider will not see an obstacle on the road. Even on a Clearway cars may stop at the side of the road due to breakdown or to consult a map or for some other reason and it is no good saying “The car should not have been there”. The answer to that is “You should have seen it”. This type of accident is one of the types covered by the Regulation about the observance of the law and if the rider is found to have contravened this regulation then a suspension from competition is normal.

(iv) Any road junction or roundabout can constitute a hazard in a race. Competitors are travelling much faster than motorists are used to seeing cyclists moving and this may cause the motorist to make an error of judgement. Be ready for it. Slip roads joining and leaving dual carriageways and other major roads are places where care is particularly necessary due to the long distance where a cyclist can be between two lanes of merging traffic or vehicles leaving the main carriageway at high speed.

4. Accidents

If you have an accident during a race, no matter how minor it may seem, you are required to report it to the Event Secretary as soon as possible.

5. The Bicycle

There are some restrictions regarding the equipment which you can ride in a time trial. Your brake levers must be positioned so that you can get to them quickly in the event of an emergency from your normal riding positions. Clamp-on triathlon bars with forearm supports, and equivalents, may be used. A solid disc wheel may be used at the rear of your bike but must not be fitted as the front wheel. Spoked and composite spoked (tri-spoked) wheels may be used in the front and rear wheel positions. Under no circumstances may streamlining devices be used. A working front and rear light must be affixed to the machine at the start of the event.

6. Clothing and Advertising

Clothing for time trials is generally a short sleeved racing vest and cycle racing shorts which cover the upper part of the thigh to just above the knee. Nowadays this is often a one-piece skinsuit. All competitors must wear a properly affixed helmet which must be of hard/soft shell construction. Helmets should conform to a recognised Standard such as SNELL B95, ANSI Z90.4, AUS/NZS 2063:96, DIN 33-954, CPSC or EN 1078.

The subject of carrying advertising on race clothing in time trials is complicated. Basically if you are a member of a sponsored club (or a professional) you may carry your sponsor’s name(s) on your race clothing. Other than that nobody may carry advertising on their race clothing in a time trial (except in club events) except, where the manufacturer puts their name on one of the products which they make. Thus cycling shoes with the name of the manufacturer, e.g. Sidi, Look, etc, may be worn but a racing vest or hat with the name of somebody who did not make it, e.g. Raleigh, Campagnolo, your local cycle dealer, etc, may not be worn unless they happen to sponsor your club.

7. Entering Events

Whatever type of time trial you are entering you must be a member of a club which is affiliated to Cycling Time Trials. Being a BCF or CTC member does not generally qualify you to ride time trials unless your BCF Division or CTC District Association is affiliated to Cycling Time Trials. If you are entering an event the closing date by which the organiser must receive your entry is usually just under two weeks before the race. Most events are now internet entry and can be entered via the Cycling Time Trials website. If using the paper entry form, it is advisable to send your entry just a little bit earlier than this to allow for delays in the post. Entry must be on an official Cycling Time Trials Entry Form. Unless otherwise specified the fastest entrants at the distance being entered will be accepted – only times done during the past three seasons qualify. If you are under 18 years of age your parents must sign the Parental Consent Form. Entry to Club events is different, usually being “entry on the line” on the day of the event. You will be required to sign a Club Entry Form and if under 18 must show the organiser a Parental Consent Form. Once your entry has been accepted for a time trial you will receive a start sheet a few days before the event giving details of the course, prizes and your starting time. Within 28 days after an event you will receive a result sheet showing where you finished in the event and confirming your official time.

8. Courses and Watches

Courses are measured to a high degree of accuracy using special equipment and methods. Whilst marshals are appointed to assist riders to get round the, course, it is your responsibility to make sure you know the route to follow in the race. The watches which timekeepers use must also meet high standards of accuracy, have certain features which generally prevent wrist watches (even digital ones) from being used and be certified by an approved watch tester. The timekeepers word regarding your time is final, but if you have a query leave this until the event is over when the timekeeper will be able to check his figures.3